Environmental Survey of Rotavirus in Sewage Water within Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria

Article 21Volume 10, Issue 2, June 2020, Page 207-212 

Document Type: Original Article

DOI: 10.21608/AEJI.2020.27901.1072


Aisha Muhammad Kadai1Hauwa S Bello2Peter Elisha Ghamba1Fatima Aminu Dauda3Idris Nasir Abdullahi email  4

1W.H.O National Polio Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital P.M.B 1414, Maiduguri, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, University of Maiduguri P. O. Box 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria

4Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


Background and study aim: Inadequately treated water supply and unhygienic food consumption are the major sources of contracting feco-orally transmitted viral pathogens, including Rotavirus. This prospective study aimed to assess the presence of Rotavirus in sewage, underground and surface waters collected from different locations within Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A total of 170 sewage and water samples (underground and surface waters) were collected from various sources in high-density and low-density areas of the Maiduguri metropolis. A modified adsorption- elution method for concentration of enteric viruses in sewage and water samples and detection of the presence of rotavirus (if present) was done using Enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). The viruses in water were concentrated by negatively charged membrane filtration, eluted with 0.05M Glycine at pH 11.5, and re-concentrated by centrifugation at 12,000rpm for one hour.
Results: Out of the 60 domestic sewage samples collected from high-density areas, 8.3% were positive for rotavirus antigen, whereas none of the samples from low-density areas were positive. In addition, rotavirus antigen was not detected in underground and surface water samples. The temperature range of the 5 rotavirus positive samples was 23-30oC. All the 5 positive samples had alkaline pH that ranged between 8 and 9.
Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the persistence of rotavirus in sewage and its possible transmission through contaminated food and poor treated water 


Environmental surveillanceVirus detectionRotavirusSewage water

Main Subjects

Infectious diseases